Om risken med vaccin

SVT Nyheter/Stockholm rapporterade idag om att endast 70% av de boende i Tensta och Rinkeby låter sina barn få MPR-vaccin (skyddar mot röda hund, mässlingen och påssjukan). Förmodligen på grund av falska rykten om att det kan ge autism, internets kanske mest seglivade myt som drivs av en ihärdig ”anti-vaccinrörelse”… Eftersom mitt senaste manus (som alltså inte är skönlitterärt) handlar delvis om detta så har jag ägnat ett kapitel till just MPR-vaccinet. Kanske läge att sprida kunskapen även om det kanske inte når så långt ut i nätets mörker 🙂

Historien om autism-myten är lite för lång att ta här (vid intresse så finns den i min bok Tvivel tillsammans med mycket annat om hur vetenskap hanteras i debatten) men det började med en vetenskaplig artikel i the Lancet som beskrev en studie utförd av Andrew Wakefield.

“IlealLymphoid-Nodular Hyperplasia, Non-Specific Colitis, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder in Children,” The Lancet 351, (Feb. 28, 1998), 637-41 Numera Tillbakadragen http://briandeer.com/mmr/lancet-paper.pdf

Artikeln visade sig senare vara fusk och har dragits tillbaka (fast det håller dom som vill hålla fast vid myten inte med med om). Andrew Wakefield har sedan dess blivit antivaccinrörelsens största idol. Lite av en ironi med tanke på att han själv vid tiden för artikelns publicering hade patent på ett vaccin mot mässling. Som av en händelse skulle just det vara bättre än MPR-vaccinet som sades ge autism…

Nåväl, tänkte bara hjälpa till att sprida lite data. Inget läkemedel är helt säkert men så här ser det ut så kan var och en göra en egen bedömning (från folkhälsomyndigheten) :

Mässling_i_Sverige_1911-2014

Mässling_i_Sverige_1960-2014

Men att få mässlingen är inte ofarligt. Dödligheten till följd av mässling är
1 per 1 000-5 000 insjuknade i höginkomstländer. Enligt statistik från USA mellan åren 1987-2000 så har över sextiotusen fall av mässling bekräftats. Av dem dog 177 personer (det vill säga tre på tusen), 97 drabbades av hjärnskada (encephalitis) och det är bara några av komplikationerna. Nästan tjugotusen av de smittade tvingades till inläggning på sjukhus.

Perry RT, Halsey NA (May 1, 2004). ”The Clinical Significance of Measles: A Review”. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 189 (S1): S4–16.

Här är några studier som gjorts angående MPR-vaccinet och/eller några av tillsatsämnena i formulering som inte kunnat konfirmera några samband. Men konspirationsteorier är ju som dom är, varje motbevis blir till ett bevis på att konspirationen finns…

(inlägget är gammalt och några av länkarna nedan funkar inte längre, kopiera i så fall författarnamn och artikelinfo och sök på nätet)

Increasing exposure to antibodystimulating proteins and polysaccharides in vaccines is not associated with risk of autism

DeStefano F, Price CS, Weintraub ES. Journal of Pediatrics. 2013;

http://jpeds.com/webfiles/images/journals /ympd/JPEDSDeStefano.pdf

n-time Vaccine Receipt in the First Year Does Not Adversely Affect Neuropsychological Outcomes

Smith M and Woods C, Pediatrics. 2010; 125(6): 1134-41

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/c ontent/abstract/125/6/1134

Evaluation of Immunization Rates and Safety Among Children With Inborn Errors of Metabolism

Klein N, et al., Pediatrics. 2011; 127(5), e1139-46

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cont ent/127/5/e1139

Measles-Containing Vaccines and Febrile Seizures in Children Age 4 to 6 Years

Klein N, et al., Pediatrics. 2011; 129(5): 809-14

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cont ent/129/5/809

No Evidence for Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccine-Associated Inflammatory Bowel Disease or Autism in a 14-year Prospective Study

Peltola H, et al., Lancet. 1998; 351:13278

http://www.freenetpages.co.uk/hp/ginger nut/lancet/Finland%20May%201998.pdf

 

Autism and Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccine: No Epidemiological Evidence for a Causal Association

Taylor B, et al., Lancet. 1999; 353(9169): 2026-9

http://tinyurl.com/5bgvwg

Mumps, Measles, and Rubella Vaccine and the Incidence of Autism Recorded by General Practitioners: A Time Trend Analysis

Kaye JA, et al., British Medical Journal. 2001; 322:460-63

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/322/  7284/460

MMR and autism: further evidence against a causal association

Farrington CP, et al., Vaccine. 2001; Jun 14; 19(27): 3632-5

http://tinyurl.com/5lb3w7

Time Trends in Autism and in MMR Immunization Coverage in California

Dales L et al., Journal of the American Medical Association. 2001; 285(9): 11835

http://jama.amaassn.org/cgi/content/abstract/285/9/1183

Measles-Mumps-Rubella and Other Measles-Containing Vaccines Do Not Increase the Risk for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Case-Control Study from the Vaccine Safety Datalink Project

Davis RL, et al., Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 2001;155(3): 354-9

http://archpedi.amaassn.org/cgi/content/abstract/155/3/354

No Evidence for a New Variant of Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Induced Autism

Fombonne E, et al., Pediatrics. 2001; 108(4): e58

http://tinyurl.com/5adckj

Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccination and Bowel Problems or Developmental Regression in Children with Autism: Population Study

Taylor B, et al. British Medical Journal. 2002; 324(7334): 393-6

http://tinyurl.com/6oqsfc

Relation of Childhood Gastrointestinal Disorders to Autism: Nested Case Control Study Using Data from the UK General Practice Research Database

Black C, et al., British Medical Journal. 2002; 325: 419-21

http://tinyurl.com/csudoy

Neurologic Disorders after MeaslesMumps-Rubella Vaccination

Makela A, et al., Pediatrics. 2002; 110: 957-63

http://tinyurl.com/6ybfjr

A Population-Based Study of Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccination and Autism

Madsen KM, et al., New England Journal of Medicine. 2002; 347(19): 1477-82

http://tinyurl.com/5eob5k

Prevalence of Autism and Parentally Reported Triggers in a North East London Population

Lingam R, et al., Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2003; 88(8): 666-70

http://adc.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/8 8/8/666

MMR Vaccination and Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A CaseControl Study

Smeeth L, et al., Lancet 2004; 364(9438): 963-9

http://tinyurl.com/8wlhfj

Age at First Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination in Children with Autism and School-Matched Control Subjects: A Population-Based Study in Metropolitan Atlanta

DeStefano F et al.,  Pediatrics 2004; 113(2): 259-66

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/c ontent/abstract/113/2/259

No evidence for links between autism, MMR and measles virus

Chen W, et al., Psychological Medicine. 2004 April; 34(3): 543-53

http://tinyurl.com/5msou2

No effect of MMR withdrawal on the incidence of autism: a total population study

Honda H, et al., Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2005; 46(6): 572-9

http://tinyurl.com/d8f3lg

Immunization Safety Review: Vaccines and Autism

Institute of Medicine, The National Academies Press: 2004

http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_ id=10997#description

Relationship between MMR Vaccine and Autism

Klein KC, Diehl EB.  The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2004; 38(7-8):1297300

http://tinyurl.com/chdjrk

Is There a ‘Regressive Phenotype’ of Autism Spectrum Disorder Associated with the Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine? A CPEA Study

Richler, et al., Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2006; 36(3): 299-316

http://tinyurl.com/66gtk2

Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Montreal and Quebec, Canada: Prevalence and Links with Immunizations

Fombonne E, et al., Pediatrics. 2006; 118(1): e139-50

http://tinyurl.com/5c27nu

Immunizations and Autism: A Review of the Literature

Doja A, and Roberts W, The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. 2006; 33(4): 341-6

http://tinyurl.com/ddnqq7

No Evidence of Persisting Measles Virus in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

D’Souza Y, et al., Pediatrics. 2006; 118(4): 1664-75

http://tinyurl.com/dcb79o

MMR-Vaccine and Regression in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Negative Results Presented from Japan

Uchiyama T, et al., Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2007; 37(2): 210-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16865547

Measles Vaccination and Antibody Response in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Baird G, et al., Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2008; 93(10): 832-7

http://tinyurl.com/dn6yy8

Lack of Association between Measles Virus Vaccine and Autism with Enteropathy: A Case-Control Study

Hornig M et al., PLoS ONE. 2008; 3(9): e3140

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad oi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0003140

Lack of Association Between MeaslesMumps-Rubella Vaccination and Autism in Children: A Case-Control Study

Budzyn D, et al., The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2010; 29(5): 397-400

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19 952979

ThimerosalContaining Vaccine
Association Between ThimerosalContaining Vaccine and Autism

Hviid, et al., Journal of the American Medical Association. 2003; 290(13):1763-6

http://tinyurl.com/5rtzjd

Thimerosal Exposure in Infants and Developmental Disorders: A Prospective Cohort Study in the United Kingdom Does Not Support a Causal Association

Heron, et al., Pediatrics. 2004;114(3)3: 577-83

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/c ontent/abstract/114/3/577

Thimerosal and the Occurrence of Autism: Negative Ecological Evidence From Danish Population-Based Data

Madsen, et al., Pediatrics. 2003; 112(3): 604-6

http://tinyurl.com/5omq4u

Autism and thimerosal-containing vaccines: Lack of consistent evidence for an association

Stehr-Green P, et al., American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2003; 25(2):1016

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12880876

Thimerosal Exposure in Infants and Developmental Disorders: A Retrospective Cohort Study in the United Kingdom Does Not Support a Causal Association

Andrews N, et al., Pediatrics. 2004; 114(3): 584-91

http://tinyurl.com/7rvj6m

Immunization Safety Review: Vaccines and Autism

Institute of Medicine, The National Academies Press: 2004

http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_ id=10997#description

Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Montreal, Quebec, Canada: Prevalence and Links With Immunizations

Fombonne, et al., Pediatrics. 2006; 118(1); e139-50  http://tinyurl.com/5c27nu

Early Thimerosal Exposure and Neuropsychological Outcomes at 7 to 10 Years

Thompson, et al., New England Journal of Medicine. 2007; 357: 1281-92

http://tinyurl.com/5ndvpe

nfants After Receipt of ThimerosalContaining Vaccines

Pichichero, et al., Pediatrics. 2008; 121(2): e208-14

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/c ontent/full/121/2/e208

Continuing increases in autism reported to California’s developmental services system: mercury in retrograde

Schechter and Grether, Archives of General Psychiatry. 2008;  65(1):19-24

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18 180424?ordinalpos=44&itool=EntrezSyst em2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPa nel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed _RVDocSum

Prenatal and Infant Exposure to Thimerosal From Vaccines and Immunoglobulins and Risk of Autism

Price C, et al., Pediatrics. 2010; 126(4): 656-64

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/c ontent/full/126/4/656

Lack of Association Between MeaslesMumps-Rubella Vaccination and Autism in Children: A Case-Control Study

Budzyn D, et al., The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2010; 29(5): 397-400

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19 952979

How the case against the MMR vaccine was fixed

Deer B, British Medical Journal. 2011; 342: 77-84

http://www.bmj.com/content/342/bmj.c5347.full

 

 

 

 

 

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